The extremely hazardous pesticide “BROMADIOLONE” issued in Kerala in the name as “RODOFOE” to kill the rats. The agricultural department, health department and the LSG jointly issued the same to the public who are not aware about the impact of this poison in Human. Ware housing corporation is the nodal agency to distribute this poison on cash payment.
4. HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION, EMERGENCY ACTION
4.1 Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid
The oral toxicity of bromadiolone for mammals is extremely high (rat oral LD50, 1.12 mg/kg; rabbit oral LD50, 1 mg/kg). The dermal
toxicity is also very high (rabbit LD50 9.4 mg/kg). No definite toxic dose has been established for humans, because of the limited
clinical reports available.
The main features of bromadiolone poisoning in less severe cases are excessive bruising, nose and gum bleeding, and blood in the urine and
faeces. Bleeding from several organs within the body leading to shock and possibly death occurs in more severe cases. The onset of the
signs of poisoning may not be evident until one to several days after ingestion.
Bromadiolone is non-irritant to the skin, but is slightly irritant to the eye.
Bromadiolone is slowly metabolized by mammals and may accumulate in the liver reaching toxic levels with repeated exposure.
Handling of technical material or powder concentrates will require the use of full air-fed protection and an impervious suit, suitable for
wash-down. In operations with liquid concentrates, PVC or nitrile-rubber gloves, armlets, and an apron should be worn together
with a face shield and rubber boots.
All persons who are bleeding must obtain medical attention.
4.1.1 Advice to physicians
If poisoning has occurred recently (within a few hours), gastric lavage and the administration of charcoal in repeated doses is
A venous blood sample should be taken to measure the haemoglobin level, prothrombin time, blood grouping, and cross-matching.
If a patient is bleeding severely, 25 mg of vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) should be given by slow intravenous injection. The
patient should be transfused with whole blood or plasma. Fresh, frozen plasma may be given. Prothrombin time should be checked at 3-h
intervals and injections of vitamin K1 repeated, if no improvement occurs. Administration of factor concentrate may be considered to
avoid volume overload.
In less severe cases of poisoning, vitamin K1 may be given in lower doses together with fresh, frozen plasma for rapid restoration of
blood clotting factors. Prothrombin time should be checked after 8-10 h and vitamin K1 administration repeated, if necessary.
Once the prothrombin time has stabilized, treatment with oral vitamin K1 (10 mg) should be continued four times daily. Oral treatment may
be sufficient in minor cases.
The patient should be kept in hospital until the prothrombin time has remained normal for three days.
The patient should be discharged from hospital with the following treatment: oral vitamin K1 (10 mg) twice daily for up to 60 days
with close monitoring of the prothrombin time. It may be possible to reduce the length of treatment.
4.1.2 Health surveillance advice
Workers handling concentrates must undergo periodic determination of the potential disturbances of the clotting mechanisms, using the most
appropriate method, i.e., by measuring circulating descarboxy-prothrombin, prothrombin concentration, or prothrombin time.
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